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## SCADASupervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) has been an integral part of system control for many years. A control center now has much real-time information available so that human and computer decisions about system operation can be made with a high degree of confidence. AMAZON multi-meters discounts AMAZON oscilloscope discountsIn order to achieve high-quality input data, algorithms have been developed to estimate the state of a system based on the available online data (state estimation). These methods are based on weighted least squares techniques to find the best state vector to fit the scatter of data. This becomes a major problem when conflicting information is received. However, as more data becomes available, the reliability of the estimate can be improved. ## Power qualityOne form of poor power quality that has received a large amount of attention is the high level of harmonics that can exist and there are numerous harmonic analysis programs now available. AMAZON multi-meters discounts AMAZON oscilloscope discountsRecently, the harmonic levels of both currents and voltages have increased considerably due to the increasing use of non-linear loads such as arc furnaces, HV DC converters, FACTS equipment, DC motor drives, and variable AC motor speed control. Moreover, commercial sector loads now contain often unacceptable levels of harmonics due to widespread use of equipment with rectifier-fed power supplies with capacitor output smoothing (e.g. computer power supplies and fluorescent lighting). The need to conserve energy has resulted in energy-efficient designs that exacerbate the generation of harmonics. Although each source only contributes a very small level of harmonics, due to their small power ratings, widespread use of small non-linear devices may create harmonic problems that are more difficult to remedy than one large harmonic source. Harmonic analysis algorithms vary greatly in their algorithms and features; however, almost all use the frequency domain. The most common technique is the direct method (also known as current injection method). Spectral analysis of the current waveform of the non-linear components is performed and entered into the program. The network data is used to assemble a system admittance matrix for each frequency of interest. This set of linear equations is solved for each frequency to determine the node voltages and, hence, current flow throughout the system. This method assumes the non-linear component is an ideal harmonic current source. The next more advanced technique is to model the relationship between the harmonic currents injected by a component to its terminal voltage waveform. This then requires an iterative algorithm, which does require excursion into the time domain for modeling this interaction. When the fundamental (load flow) is also included, thus simulating the interaction between fundamental and harmonic frequencies, it’s termed a harmonic power flow. The most advanced technique, which is still only a research tool, is the harmonic domain. In this iterative technique one Jacobian is built up that represents all harmonic frequencies. This allows coupling between harmonics, which occurs, for example, in salient synchronous machines, to be represented. There are many other features that need to be considered, such as whether the algorithm uses symmetrical components or phase co-ordinates, or whether it’s single or three phase. Data entry for single phase typically requires the electrical parameters, whereas three phase analysis normally requires the physical geometry of the overhead transmission lines and cables and conductor details so that a transmission line parameter program or cable parameter program can calculate the line or cable electrical parameters. The communication link between the monitoring point and the control center can now be very sophisticated and can utilize satellites. This technology has led to the development of systems to analyze the power quality of a system. Harmonic measurement and analysis has now reached a high level of maturity. Many different pieces of information can be monitored and the results over time stored in a database. Algorithms based on the fast Fourier transforms can then be used to convert this data from the time domain to the frequency domain. Computing techniques coupled with fast and often parallel computing allow this information to be displayed in real time. By utilizing the time-stamping capability of the global positioning system (GPS), information gathered at remote sites can be linked together. Using the GPS time stamp, samples taken exactly simultaneously can be fed to a harmonic state estimator which can even determine the position and magnitude of harmonics entering the system as well as the harmonic voltages and currents at points not monitored (provided enough initial monitoring points exist). One of the most important features of harmonic analysis software is the ability to display the results graphically. The refined capabilities of present three-dimensional graphics packages have simplified the analysis considerably. |

Friday, December 23, 2016 1:53