(Greek letter) Gamma Electronics

-- Unique audio/video information ... since 2005 --

Guide to Good Sound

TV + Video Glossary

Stax Electrostatic Earspeakers

Do-it-Yourself (DIY) Electronics -- modification and review pages...

Articles / Guides:

Home Theater and Video

Headphone gear


Phono (turntable, cartridge, vinyl, record care)

Vacuum tubes (valves) and related equipment

Solid state (transistor)

Radio and wireless

Music and Recordings


"Gammelectronics.com" is now Gammelectronics.xyz -- please update your links accordingly ... thx!

above: Weird "audio art" from the late 1970s, as used in the long-out-of-print U.S.-based Audio magazine ... read more.

Below: Classic ad from audio magazines ca. mid 1970...like this image from a BIC turntable ad ...

Below: Micro-Seiki goodness ...

...from Micro-Seiki to Micro-Acoustics ...

Below: An image of a classic turntable for which we have re-published the Audio magazine test report...

Below: Some classic hi-fi cartoons by Charles Rodrigues (September 29, 1926 - June 14, 2004) -- a contributor to Stereo Review (and other magazines)

Harman Kardon turntable series (1983-84 catalog)

"PEAR PRESSURE" (an essay about psychoacoustics...)

Vacuum Tube (Valve) Radio and Audio Repair Guide

Book Review: Mastering Audio by Bob Katz

Balanced Audio Cable Hum: Cause and Cure

Audio Engineering Guide

Rehabilitating Cathode Followers

Renovating the H.H. Scott 222C vacuum tube integrated amplifier

A Bolt from the Blue: Lightning strikes vs. Home electronics

Japanese IC Preamp with Electronic Level and Selector

High-End 120W MOSFET IC Driven Amp

Switchable Gain Booster Amplifier

The GAMP: Adaptable Power for Tube Amps

Tri-Way Low Voltage Supply

A Chip-Driven SE Monoblock Amplifier

YAMAHA DSP-A2070 Digital Sound-Field Processing Amplifier

GENESIS Genre I Loudspeaker

Jadis JS1 Symmetrical D/A processor & J1 Drive CD transport

Audio Alchemy ACD-Pro, Audio Electronic CD-1, and Rotel RCD-990 CD players

The Parts Connection Assemblage DAC-2 D/A converter

Counterpoint DA-10 digital processor

Parasound D/AC-1100 and D/AC-2000 Ultra Digital Processors

Audio Note Kassai Silver Power Amplifier

DSD and SACD -- Evolutionary or Revolutionary?

Carver SD/A-390t CD Changer

Optocouplers for Audio

ezDAC -- A high-performance DIY digital-to-analog processor


Audio magazine (1947-2000)

Departments, etc.:

Audio, Etc. (Sept 1974)

Audio, Etc. (Dec. 1977)

Audio, Etc. (Jan. 1977)

Audio, Etc. (Sept. 1977)

Audio, Etc. (Oct. 1977)

Audio, Etc. (Nov. 1977)

Audio, Etc. "Distortion" (Feb. 1980)

Audio Etc. "Non-Trivial Pursuits" (March 1985)

Audio Etc. “Timely Lessons” (Sept. 1985)

Audioclinic (Sept. 1985)

Audioclinic (March 1985)

Audioclinic (Jan. 1977)

Audioclinic (Sept. 1977)

Audioclinic (Nov. 1977)

Audioclinic (Dec. 1974)

Audioclinic (Sept. 1974)

Behind The Scenes--Second-City Firsts (1985) (Sept. 1985)

Behind The Scenes "Speaker To Spec" (March 1985)

Behind The Scenes (Oct. 1977)

Behind The Scenes (Dec. 1974)

Behind The Scenes (Sept. 1974)

Behind The Scenes (Jan. 1977)

Behind The Scenes (Sept. 1977)

Behind The Scenes (Nov. 1977)

Digital Domain -- Beautiful Or Beastly? (By Ken Pohlmann) (Sept. 1985)

Digital Domain -- Keeping Track (March 1985)

Dear Editor (Sept. 1977)

Editor's Review (Sept. 1974)

SIGNALS & NOISE (Letters to Editor) (Sept. 1985)

Road Signs--Private Show (Automotive audio commentary, by Ivan Berger) (Sept. 1985)

Tape Guide (Sept. 1985)

Tape Guide (March 1985)

Tape Guide (Oct. 1977)

Tape Guide (Sept. 1977)

Tape Guide (Jan. 1977)

Tape Guide (Sept. 1974)

Misc. Letters-to-Editor, and Departments


Thinking About Print-Through (Sept. 1977)

Amp Design and Overload (Nov. 1977)

Turntables (Part IV): Arm/Cartridge Resonance (Oct. 1977)

The Sheffield Story (about Sheffield Lab and The Mastering Lab) (Jan. 1977)

Cassette Deck Transport Problems (Sept. 1974)

Mikes of the Pre-War Era (Dec. 1974)

Mike Technique and Sound Effects (Dec. 1974)

Miking the PRO Way (Nov. 1974)

New Loudspeaker With Extended Bass (Dec. 1974)

Speaker Tests--Phase Response (by Richard C. Heyser) (Dec. 1974)

Speaker Tests--Impedance (by Richard C. Heyser) (Sept 1974)

A Primer on Choosing Audio Tape (Sept. 1974)

A Dipole Speaker System (Sept. 1974)

Language of High Fidelity, part XII (Dec. 1974)

Remedying RF Interference (RFI) (Jan. 1977)

No Respect for Audiophiles?

Digital Doctor: A look at DAT and MiniDisc

The Importance of Dynamic Range (Jan. 1980)

Tonearm Geometry and Setup Demystified (Jan. 1980)

Kill FM Interference With Two Antennas (Jan. 1980)

Dr. Thomas Stockham on the Future of Digital Recording (Feb. 1980)

Another View of TIM (transient intermodulation distortion) (part 1) (Feb. 1980)

Building a Legacy--Interview with Bill Dudleston by Tom Nousaine (Dec. 1998)

Interview with Andy Kotsatos of Boston Acoustics (Aug. 1998)

FM Fidelity: Is The Promise Lost? (March 1985)

The Problem with FM (March 1985)

Gray Market Electronics: Worth the Price? (Sept. 1985)

Nile Rogers--Making Tracks (Audio interview, Sept. 1985)

Advertisements (ADs, etc.):

ADC cartridges (Oct. 1977)

ADS (Analog & Digital Systems) loudspeakers (March 1985)

AKG phono cartridges, microphones and headphones (Nov. 1977)

Allison Acoustics loudspeakers (Oct. 1977)

AR (Acoustic Research) loudspeakers (Oct 1977)

AR (Acoustic Research) loudspeakers (Nov. 1977)

AudioQuest cartridges (March 1985)

Audio-Technica microphones (Nov. 1977)

BEYERDYNAMIC microphones (Nov. 1977)

B-I-C VENTURI speakers (Sept. 1974)

B-I-C VENTURI speakers (Jan. 1977)

B-I-C turntables (Sept. 1974)

B-I-C turntables (Nov. 1977)

Carver TX-11 FM Stereo Tuner (March 1985)

Celestion (speaker) and Decca (cartridge) (Jan. 1977)

Decca phono cartridge (Oct. 1977)

Discwasher -- DiscTraker (Nov. 1977)

Discwasher -- record care (Nov. 1977)

Dynaco STEREO 416 amplifier (Oct. 1977)

Empire Scientific phono cartridges (Jan. 1977)

Epicure loudspeaker systems (Oct. 1977)

Fisher cassette decks (Nov. 1977)

Harman Kardon T65C turntable (Sept. 1985)

H.H. Scott, Inc. loudspeakers (Oct. 1977)

Infinity speakers (Nov. 1977)

JVC JL-F45 and JL-F35 turntables (Jan. 1977)

JVC receivers (Oct. 1977)

Kenwood receivers (Nov. 1977)

Keith Monks Record Sweeper (Oct. 1977)

Koss Auditor headphones (Oct. 1977)

Koss PRO/4 Triple A Stereophones (Nov. 1977)

Koss CM speaker systems (Nov. 1977)

Lenco turntables (Nov. 1977)

Luxman components (Nov. 1977)

Marantz Model 2500 (Nov. 1977)

Micro-Acoustics phono cartridges (Sept. 1977)

Micro Seiki turntables (Oct. 1977)

Pickering phono cartridges (Oct. 1977)

Pioneer SX1250 receiver (Oct. 1977)

Phase Linear 400 (Oct. 1977)

Sansui SR-838 turntable (Oct. 1977)

Sansui components (Nov. 1977)

Scotch Master Series cassette tape (Oct. 1977)

SME 3009 Series III tonearm (Oct. 1977)

Sonus -- High Definition Phono Cartridges (Oct. 1977)

Sony's ES--Digital Audio (Sept. 1985)

Stanton Magnetics (Sept. 1977)

Stanton Magnetics (Nov. 1977)

Superex dynamic headphones (Oct. 1977)

Technics Professional Series (Jan. 1977)

Thorens IsoTrack turntables (Oct. 1977)

Wharfedale speakers (Nov. 1977)

Yamaha audio (Nov. 1977)

Yamaha receiver technology (Sept. 1974)

Yamaha receivers (Oct. 1977)

Equipment Profiles (Reviews):

Battle of the Titans —Two high-power receivers tested (Jan. 1977)

BGW Systems Model 203 Stereo Preamplifier-Control Center (Nov. 1977)

Carver Compact Disc Player (March 1985)

Celestion UL-10 Loudspeaker (Jan. 1977)

Crown PZM-180 Pressure Zone Microphone (March 1985)

Dynaco AF-6 AM/FM Tuner (Sept. 1974)

Harman/Kardon Rabco ST -7 Turntable (Jan. 1977)

Lux Audio MB-3045 Power Amplifier (Nov. 1977)

NAD 7130 Receiver (Sept. 1985)

Philips Model AH-572 Preamplifier (Nov. 1977)

Sansui Model BA-5000 Stereo Power Amplifier (Nov. 1977)

Sherwood Model Micro/CPU 100 Stereo FM Tuner (Nov. 1977)

Sony SCD-1 Super Audio CD Player

Sony CDP-620ES CD Player (Sept. 1985)

SONY PCM-501 ES Digital Audio Processor (Sept. 1985)

Onkyo DV-S501 DVD player

Technics RS-B100 Cassette Deck (March 1985)

Thiel CS7.2 loudspeaker

Denon AVR-3300 A/V Receiver

Grado Reference RA-1 Headphone Amp

ERGO AMT headphones

Thule Spirit CD100 CD Player

NHT Pro A-20 Speaker System

Yamaha CA-1000 Integrated Amplifier (Sept. 1974)


(based on Audio1 magazine 100th anniv. issue articles, May 1997)

The Future of Stereo

[1] Classic Audio and Audio Engineering magazine issues are available for free download at the Internet Archive (archive.org, aka The Wayback Machine); they are also avail. at americanradiohistory.com

Stereo Review (American hi-fi audio magazine, published 1958-1999)

Here are selected articles/reviews/features and ads from classic Stereo Review issues...



ARTICLES (Departments, Features, etc.):


Hot Tip!!! DIY audio (RCA/phono) interconnects

What to use:

WIRE: I use JSC Wire--Multi-Conductor Overall Foil Shield 75°C, 300 V, PE Insulation (the version shown here is more than two conductors)...
...which I get at the local electronics-parts store. It's good enough for most industrial and residential applications and far from being cheap-grade. I also use Canare microphone or coaxial cable; I don't think this more-expensive, audio-app-specific wire is better than JSC.

PHONO (RCA) CONNECTORS: Neutrik, Switchcraft, Canare, etc.

OTHER: Heatshink tubing; high-quality (silver) solder

How to wire: Blue is signal - tip on plug; Screen (shield) is return (ground) - outer on plug. So, how about white? Wire it to the outer at the signal (source) end only, making the cable "directional".

References: audioasylum.com article/thread

Shown below: inexpensive but effective Switchcraft 3502 RCA plug...

More-expensive Mogami (cable) and Canare (plug) options ...

Classic review: Sony DVP-S7000 DVD/CD player

Classic review: Jamo Concert 8 and Concert Center Speakers

Classic review: Carver A-760x amplifier

Classic review: Mark Levinson No. 31.5 CD Transport

Passive Preamp: Transformer Implemented

DIY Noise Meter Amp project

Single-Ended to Differential-Mode Vacuum Tube Projects Made Easy

High-Voltage Differential Amplifier for Measurement

ADCOM GFP-565 Preamp mod

Rebuild a Classic Heath’s W-5M

Sonic Comparison of Power Amplifier Output vs. Input

InterSil D2Audio Class D Audio Modules

The Silent Information Revolution -- Online education challenges traditional paradigms

Gamma: A 10-Watt Integrated Amplifier

Tweaking the Passive Inverse RIAA Network

Calibration of the Hickok 539C tube tester

Cascoding National’s LM12 for 140W

Optimum Stages for Minimal Distortion

beyerdynamic DT-911 headphones--review, teardown and analysis

JVC HA-D990 headphones--review and analysis

Reliable Audio Engineering via Grounding and System Interlacing

Review of Parasound’s Zamp V3

How Loud Is Real? Why loudness controls never worked

Radio Shack Sound Level Meter Characteristics

An IM Signal Generator Upgrade

An Analog A/B/I Switcher + Headphone Amp

Capacitor Bypassing in Audio Power Supply Circuits: Proceed Carefully!

Review of Echo Busters Decorative Acoustical Treatments

Speech Intelligibility: What reverb is -- and how to calculate it

Review of the Pioneer X-Z9 Compact Stereo System

21st-Century Cinema Design--Viewing and listening requirements for a THX-quality theater design.

MECHANICS HALL -- Meeting house for Music

DIY DAP—A Do-It-Yourself Digital Audio Player: Build an embedded hardware/software system for 16-bit digital audio.

The Willowhill Pre-amp -- A high slew-rate JFET pre-amplifier

Rebuild an Old Turntable -- A simple circuit and some tinkering allow clean analog sound.

All About Speaker Cones -- Let's examine loudspeaker materials, fabrication, and quality

The Basics of Headphone Testing and Measurements

Ultra Low-Noise Phono Preamp [theory, concept, design and DIY project]

Chassis construction techniques for audio projects

Maintaining Your Balance--A DIY project to handle balanced/unbalanced devices

An Inductively-Equalized Solid-State Phono Preamp

A Minimalist Audio Amplifier Design

The G40EP: A Flea-Powered Headphone Amp (and how to improve this classic design)

The Noise (Analysis) Machine -- a method to perform accurate noise measurements

Distortion Meter – An Audio Interconnect Tester?

Salvaging vintage audio (electronics) treasures -- from dumpsters, eBay, etc.

Stereo’s Life During Wartime (WWII)

Remasters of Living Stereo

The Lowdown on Subwoofers

Apogee Acoustics Slant 6 Ribbon Loudspeaker [review]

Wadia 27 D/A converter [review]

Theta Digital Casablanca [review]

Anthem Pre-1 Preamplifier [review]

Parasound HCA-2200-II Amplifier [review]

Sharp MD-D10 Portable MiniDisc Player [review]

PS Audio Ultralink D/A Converter [review]

Benchmark DAC1 USB [review]

McCormack Audio DNA-1 amp and ALD-1 preamp [review]

Audio by Van Alstine Super Pas 4i -- preamp kit [review]

Teac V8000S Cassette Deck [review]

Audio Engineering Guide: Playback of Analog (vinyl) Records

Sound Ecology: environmental and health factors affecting your hi-fi equipment, your listening, and the planet

Audiophile or Audiophool?

Low-Level Analog Effects Switching project (for electric guitars)

Inouye Synergistic Power Line Conditioner

CD player round-up (early 1989): A subjective review -- players—from Magnavox, Adcom, Yamaha, and Onkyo—are in four different price ranges.

Back to the Future: High-rez digital ideas circa 1998

Understanding Tube Electronics (adapted from New York Audio Labs 1984 booklet, by Harvey Rosenberg): The State of Audio Technology; Tubes Versus Transistors -- Is There an Audible Difference?; A Vacuum Tube Audio Primer

Why Power Tubes (valves) Arc

The Cathode Follower and Its Weaker Siblings (Test results confirm that cathode followers are even more capable of driving capacitive loads than equivalent common-cathode amplifiers.)

Decca Stereo and the Los Angeles Philharmonic (1960s and 1970s sound engineering)

Jon Dahlquist on Loudspeaker Design: Of Speaker Design, Theory and the Recorded Truth

Yamaha CD-X1 Compact Disc Player -- vintage second-generation CD player; review from Audio magazine, Aug. 1984.

Mark Levinson Reference Digital Processor No.30 [adapted from Audio magazine profile, Jan. 1993, by Anthony H. Cordesman]

Optimus DCT-2000 DCC Recorder (lossy=good???) [adapted from Audio magazine profile, Jan. 1993]

Analog TAPE GUIDE: Q & A about the still-highest-fidelity audio- recording and reproduction format! (part 1, part 2)

Dynamic Bias Control with HX Professional (analog tape at its best!)

"Audio Talk" from audio-technica (info-ads series on phono cartridges)

In Search of a Reference Phono Cartridge (circa late 1980’s)

The Cartridge Chronicles: Part II [two fixed-coil pickups—of the moving-magnet variety—and a single moving-coil]

A Unique Loudspeaker Crossover Design with Waveform Fidelity

The Place where Tone Begins: 1996 Interview with Mesa Engineering’s Randall Smith

Digital Up-manship (an article from Audio magazine, Jan. 1994)

Computing audio's future (an article from Audio magazine, Jan. 1994)

The Audio Bookshelf (missing some titles on your Kindle or bookshelf? read more ...)

CD (optical disc) longevity -- How durable and reliable are they? (read more...)

Old / vintage gear reviews -- WHY they are important

QUESTION: Why resurrect old equipment reviews?

ONE SIMPLE ANSWER: To keep the industry in check.

Old-is-new trends are common in all eras, gadget genres, and formats.

Gear "collectors" may be motivated by nostalgia or boredom or re-sale value (eBay stores)... but let's set these excuses aside, and simply ask this fundamental question:

How much technical progress has really been made in audio science and engineering -- that is, does modern equipment really sound better?

Is there such a thing as "timeless high-fidelity?" Perhaps, yes, if one is talking about: vinyl on classic Thorens turntables, played on decades-old electrostatic and horn loudspeakers, and (of course) through vintage vacuum-tube gear. This old stuff, when functioning properly and reliably (and maybe restored), can directly compete with many contemporary models.

Much old gear can be found on eBay and Craig’s List for considerably less money than band new (or even used-but-modern equipment, as in the overpriced used/2nd hand/trade-in section of hi-fi shops).

Knowing when to invest in old gear takes practice and skill (sometimes literally: as in using a soldering iron!). But the economic and self-accomplishment rewards are well worth it! You many never buy new gear again!

Guide to Audio Engineering

Power Supply Design


Electrodynamic / Orthodynamic:(aka planar magnetic, like Audeze brand)

This type of headphone is essentially in the same family as the moving-coil type, except that the coil has, in effect, been unwound and fixed to a thin, light, plastics diaphragm.

The annular magnetic gap has been replaced by opposing bar magnets, which cause the magnetic field to be squashed more or less parallel to the diaphragm. The " coil " is in fact now a thin conductor zig-zagging or spiraling its way across the surface of the diaphragm, oriented at right angles to the magnetic field so that sending a constant direct current through the conductor results in a more or less equal unidirectional force, which displaces the diaphragm from its rest position. An alternating music signal therefore causes the diaphragm to vibrate in sympathy with it, creating a sound-wave analogue of the music. (read more...)



Links and references for audio/video and related electronics:

Here are some other sites that contain products or information that may be of interest:


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Updated: Thursday, 2016-12-08 18:44 PST

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