(Greek letter) Gamma Electronics

-- Unique audio/video and general electronics information ... since 2005 --

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Now incorporating information, guides and articles related to: Electrical Engineering and Science for Manufacturing Applications, including: industrial electronics, DIY electronics, breadboard projects, and related areas.

This website is an ideal companion for industry and academia alike.

CES 1970

Above: Receivers from CES 70. More scenes from 1970 ...

Above: Image from a magazine ad, Nov. 1977, of an Empire 698 Turntable.

above: Sony magazine ad from Sept. 1975. Read and see more ...

Audio-, video-, and other electronics-related articles and ads from long-out-of-print (classic) magazines ...

New! We're adding articles, ads and more from classic USA print magazine, High Fidelity.

New: Argus Electronics Monthly (classic UK print magazine)

Selected articles from Popular Electronics (classic USA print magazine)

Selected articles from Hobby Electronics (classic UK print magazine)

Electronic Servicing & Technology (USA print magazine)

Selected articles from Electronic Servicing (classic USA print magazine)

Selected articles from Electronic Technician/Dealer (classic USA print magazine)

Selected articles from Electronic Theory Handbook (classic USA annual print magazine)

Selected articles from Electronics Digest (classic UK print magazine)

Selected articles from Wireless World (classic UK print magazine)

Selected articles from C&E Hobby Handbooks -- Electronics Handbook (classic USA print magazine)

Selected articles from Computers and Electronics (classic USA print magazine)

Selected articles from Electronic Servicing & Technology (classic USA print magazine)

Selected articles from Maplin (UK print magazine)

Electronics Today (UK print magazine)

Radio-Electronics--Special Projects (USA print magazine)

Radio-Electronics (USA print magazine)

Articles and ADs from: Electronic Technician/Dealer (classic USA print magazine)

Articles and ADs from: Electronics World (USA print magazine; audio)

Electronics World (USA print magazine; non-audio content)

Selected articles from Electronics Now (classic USA print magazine)

Selected articles from Everyday Practical Electronics (classic UK print magazine)

Selected articles from Electronics Today (classic UK print magazine)

Selected articles from Elektor Electronics USA (classic USA print magazine)

Elektor 303 DIY Project Circuits (1988)

Audio humor

Lirpa -- One-Brand Systems (April Fools humor, Apr. 1983) (for years, Audio magazine featured "Lirpa" April Fools humor in their April issue. Lirpa is April spelled backwards)

above: Weird "audio art" from the 1970s, as used in the long-out-of-print U.S.-based Audio magazine ... read more.

Below: Some classic hi-fi cartoons by Charles Rodrigues (September 29, 1926 - June 14, 2004) -- a contributor to Stereo Review (and other magazines)


"Gammelectronics.com" is now Gammelectronics.xyz -- please update your links accordingly ... thx!


above: Technics SP-10MK3 Turntable (see: Audio mag. review, Feb. 1985)

above: Ad for Audio-Technica AT25 stereo phono cartridge (May 1979)

above: Decca London International Mk VI Gold Elliptical Phono Cartridge (Audio magazine review, Aug. 1979)

above: Shure V15 Type IV ad in Audio magazine, May 1978.

top: Classic Dual turntable review in Audio magazine (Feb. 1977).
above: Advertisement for a Dual 1249 turntable, Audio magazine (May 1977).

above: Portion of Dual turntable ad from April 1978.

above: Photo from an ad of the Dual 731Q turntable, ca. March 1980.

above: Scanning Beam Microscope photo of Stereohedron stylus; 2000 times magnification. Brackets point out wider contact area. Photo featured in this 1979 Stanton Magnetic ad.

above: Pickering XSV 3000 --- vintage 1977 Audio magazine review !

above: Classic Kenwood ad from 1977. Article coming soon!

above: 1979 advertisement for ADCOM Crosscoil.

above: Can you guess what this might be? (answer: eliptical vs. Shibata)

Below: Classic ad from audio magazines ca. mid 1970...like this image from a BIC turntable ad ...

Below: Micro-Seiki goodness...

...from Micro-Seiki to Micro-Acoustics ...

Below: An image of a classic turntable for which we have re-published the Audio magazine test report...


Misc. Topics...

Understanding and Measuring Hi-Fi Specifications (as of 1978)

Guide to Recording Music on Location

Stereophonic Sound (1957) by Norman H. Crowhurst

A Practical Introduction to Digital IC's (1977)

50 Circuits Using 7400 Series IC's

50 CMOS I.C. Projects

Preamplifier and Filter Circuits

Effectively Using the OSCILLOSCOPE

Mullard Circuits for Audio Amplifiers [1963]

Crystal Oscillator Circuits

Know Your Signal Generators [1965]

ETI Circuit Techniques--volume one

Major Solid State Audio hi-fi Construction Projects

Power Supply Projects

Compact disc (CD) players--Theory and Servicing

Compact disc (CD) players--Maintenance and repair

Radio & Electronics: Projects and Experiments

Do-it-Yourself (DIY) Electronics -- modification and review pages...


Guide to Mastering Electronics

Drafting for Electronics--Schematic Diagrams, Motors and Control Circuits, more...

Electronic Drafting
Electrical and Electronics Drafting (using pre-computer and CAD-less methods)

Electronic Drafting
Electrical and electronic drawing--Industrial Controls, Drawings for the Electric Power Field, more...

All About Lasers (With DIY Projects)

How to Build Electrical and Electronics Projects

Useful Power Supply Circuits

Basics of Electricity and Electronics with Projects

Practical Oscillator Circuits

Guide to Crystal Oscillators

Guide to Transformers

Guide to Failure Modes of Electronics

Guide to Transistors

Guide to Advanced Robotics

Electronic Techniques--Soldering
Electronic Techniques--Soldering, Shop Practices and Construction (for industry, classroom, DIY and hobby; using pre-computer and CAD-less methods)

Electronics Designers Casebook 5

Guide to FET Circuits

Power Supplies--Theory and Troubleshooting (1993)

Using Electronics -- through DIY and Experiments (1958)

Printed Circuits (1959)


Solid-State Power Supplies and Converters (1974)

Guide to Integrated Circuits

Frequency and its Measurement (1975)

Troubleshooting With the Oscilloscope

Electronic Testing Equipment Construction Manual

Coil Design and Construction Manual -- How to make your own RF and AF coils, chokes and transformers


Electronic Components, Instruments, and Troubleshooting (1981)

Vacuum Tube Rectifiers (1958)

How to use signal and sweep generators (1953)

More Advanced Uses of the Multimeter (1989)

Modern Opto Device Projects (1987)

How to Use Meters (1954)

The Professional Technician's Guide to Solid-State Servicing (1972)

Principles Of Transistor Circuits (1961)

Complete Guide To Reading Schematic Diagrams (1972)

RCA Solid-State Hobby Circuits Manual (1968)

Handbook of Power Resistors (1959)

101 ways to use your OSCILLOSCOPE (1974)

High Fidelity Designs (1977)

Electronic Techniques--Soldering
The Art of Soldering

Basic Television--Principles and Servicing

Basic Television--Principles and Servicing (1975)

Troubleshooting Microprocessors & Digital Logic (1980)

Guide to Power Supplies: Theory, Practice and Troubleshooting

Practical do-it-yourself IC projects

How to Get the Most Out of Your VOM

Guide to VOMs and VTVMs

Guide to Surface Mount Devices and Surface Mount Technology (SMD, SMT)


Essentials of Vector and Phase Analysis (1963) -- A basic “textbook” on the principles necessary for a thorough knowledge of AC circuit operation.

Electronic Techniques--Soldering

How To Read Schematic Diagrams (1967)

Guide to LC circuits

Guide to Reading Schematic Diagrams

199 Electronic Test & Alignment Techniques (from early 1970s)

Servicing by Signal Tracing (1939)

USING YOUR METER: VOM and DVM Multitesters (Radio Shack, 1985)

Design & Operation of Regulated Power Supplies (1970)

How to use TEST PROBES (1954)

Filters and Attenuators Guide (1964)

R-L-C Components Guide (1959)

abc's of TRANSFORMERS and COILS (1968)

Practical Electronic Filters (1991)

Multivibrators (1956)

Electrostatics (1958)

Scope Waveform Analysis (1963)

Understanding Electronics (1984)

DeVry Technical Institute (Electronics Courses) (1956)

Transistor Circuit Manual (1961)

Using Scopes in Transistor Circuits (1968)

Transistor Circuits (1964)

Practical TRANSISTOR Servicing (1967)

Metallic Rectifiers--Principles and Applications (1957)

Practical Transistor Theory (1968)


Diode Circuits Guide (1965)

Direct Readout Meters (1966)

Electronic Component Tests & Measurements (1963)

Understanding Capacitors and Their Uses (1964)

BRIDGES and other NULL DEVICES (1967)

Gas Tubes (1958)

Electronic Experimenter's Manual (1959)

Wave Propagation (1957)

Inverse Feedback (1956)

Experimental Antenna Topics

Industrial Electronics (in the early 1960s)

Service of Consumer and Commercial Electronics

Electronic Probes (in the mid 1950s)


Detector and Rectifier Circuits

Guide to Transistor Circuits (late 1950s)

Articles / Guides:

Home Theater and Video

Headphone gear


Phono (turntable, cartridge, vinyl, record care)

Vacuum tubes (valves) and related equipment

Solid state (transistor)

Radio, TV, wireless, broadcasting

Music and Recordings

Harman Kardon turntable series (1983-84 catalog)

"PEAR PRESSURE" (an essay about psychoacoustics...)

Vacuum Tube (Valve) Radio and Audio Repair Guide

Book Review: Mastering Audio by Bob Katz

A Bolt from the Blue: Lightning strikes vs. Home electronics

Jadis JS1 Symmetrical D/A processor & J1 Drive CD transport

Audio Alchemy ACD-Pro, Audio Electronic CD-1, and Rotel RCD-990 CD players

The Parts Connection Assemblage DAC-2 D/A converter

Counterpoint DA-10 digital processor

Parasound D/AC-1100 and D/AC-2000 Ultra Digital Processors

Audio Note Kassai Silver Power Amplifier

DSD and SACD -- Evolutionary or Revolutionary?

Carver SD/A-390t CD Changer


Audio (American hi-fi magazine (1947-2000))

Stereo Review (American hi-fi audio magazine, published 1958-1999)

Hot Tip!!! DIY audio (RCA/phono) interconnects

What to use:

WIRE: I use JSC Wire--Multi-Conductor Overall Foil Shield 75°C, 300 V, PE Insulation (the version shown here is more than two conductors)...

...which I get at the local electronics-parts store. It's good enough for most industrial and residential applications and far from being cheap-grade. I also use Canare microphone or coaxial cable; I don't think this more-expensive, audio-app-specific wire is better than JSC.

PHONO (RCA) CONNECTORS: Neutrik, Switchcraft, Canare, etc.

OTHER: Heatshink tubing; high-quality (silver) solder

How to wire: Blue is signal - tip on plug; Screen (shield) is return (ground) - outer on plug. So, how about white? Wire it to the outer at the signal (source) end only, making the cable "directional".

References: audioasylum thread

Shown below: inexpensive but effective Switchcraft 3502 RCA plug...

More-expensive Mogami (cable) and Canare (plug) options ...

JVC HA-D990 headphones--review and analysis

MECHANICS HALL -- Meeting house for Music

Sharp MD-D10 Portable MiniDisc Player [review]

Teac V8000S Cassette Deck [review]

Audio Engineering Guide: Playback of Analog (vinyl) Records

Sound Ecology: environmental and health factors affecting your hi-fi equipment, your listening, and the planet

Audiophile or Audiophool?

Low-Level Analog Effects Switching project (for electric guitars)

Inouye Synergistic Power Line Conditioner

CD player round-up (early 1989): A subjective review -- players—from Magnavox, Adcom, Yamaha, and Onkyo—are in four different price ranges.

Back to the Future: High-rez digital ideas circa 1998

Understanding Tube Electronics (adapted from New York Audio Labs 1984 booklet, by Harvey Rosenberg): The State of Audio Technology; Tubes Versus Transistors -- Is There an Audible Difference?; A Vacuum Tube Audio Primer

Decca Stereo and the Los Angeles Philharmonic (1960s and 1970s sound engineering)

Jon Dahlquist on Loudspeaker Design: Of Speaker Design, Theory and the Recorded Truth

In Search of a Reference Phono Cartridge (circa late 1980’s)

The Cartridge Chronicles: Part II [two fixed-coil pickups—of the moving-magnet variety—and a single moving-coil]

The Place where Tone Begins: 1996 Interview with Mesa Engineering’s Randall Smith

The Audio Bookshelf (missing some titles on your Kindle or bookshelf? read more ...)

CD (optical disc) longevity -- How durable and reliable are they? (read more...)

Old / vintage gear reviews -- WHY they are important

QUESTION: Why resurrect old equipment reviews?

ONE SIMPLE ANSWER: To keep the industry in check.

Old-is-new trends are common in all eras, gadget genres, and formats.

Gear "collectors" may be motivated by nostalgia or boredom or re-sale value (eBay stores)... but let's set these excuses aside, and simply ask this fundamental question:

How much technical progress has really been made in audio science and engineering -- that is, does modern equipment really sound better?

Is there such a thing as "timeless high-fidelity?" Perhaps, yes, if one is talking about: vinyl on classic Thorens turntables, played on decades-old electrostatic and horn loudspeakers, and (of course) through vintage vacuum-tube gear. This old stuff, when functioning properly and reliably (and maybe restored), can directly compete with many contemporary models.

Much old gear can be found on eBay and Craig’s List for considerably less money than band new (or even used-but-modern equipment, as in the overpriced used/2nd hand/trade-in section of hi-fi shops).

Knowing when to invest in old gear takes practice and skill (sometimes literally: as in using a soldering iron!). But the economic and self-accomplishment rewards are well worth it! You many never buy new gear again!

Guide to Audio Engineering

Power Supply Design


Electrodynamic / Orthodynamic: (aka planar magnetic, like Audeze brand)

This type of headphone is essentially in the same family as the moving-coil type, except that the coil has, in effect, been unwound and fixed to a thin, light, plastics diaphragm.

The annular magnetic gap has been replaced by opposing bar magnets, which cause the magnetic field to be squashed more or less parallel to the diaphragm. The " coil " is in fact now a thin conductor zig-zagging or spiraling its way across the surface of the diaphragm, oriented at right angles to the magnetic field so that sending a constant direct current through the conductor results in a more or less equal unidirectional force, which displaces the diaphragm from its rest position. An alternating music signal therefore causes the diaphragm to vibrate in sympathy with it, creating a sound-wave analogue of the music. (read more...)

Guide to Good Sound

Audio Equipment--Troubleshooting and Repair Guide

Hi-Fi Stereo Servicing Guide

Guide to Troubleshooting Consumer Electronics Audio Circuits

Guide to Troubleshooting / Repairing Electronics Without a Schematic

General guide to Audio Electronics

Our sister sites:

Now incorporating site formerly known as "Measurement-Testing.com" !!! This was one of our sister sites (2005-2016) created simultaneously with industrial-electronics.com. It has moved in! All its content are finally and conveniently here on gammaelectronics!

Industrial Static Control

Industrial-Electricity.com -- Information and Resources for Students and Industry

Data Acquisition Systems (DAQ) and Equipment




Top of page

Links and references for audio / video and related electronics:

Here are some other sites that contain products or information that may be of interest:

United States Construction Resources and Support— Specializing in indoor and outdoor home lighting, light fixtures, ceiling fans, lamps, and electrical lighting accessories.

"The Construction Resources Folks" -- Home Repair, Improvement and Hardware: Products and Tips for Do-it-Yourself Projects

Industrial Electronics — Electrical Resources for Manufacturing and Government Applications: including Cable & Wire Managers and Cord Covers.

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Updated: Sunday, 2024-05-12 23:13 PST

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